Shadow Word generated at THE PROMISED


The Holy Prophet (SAW) said: One who dies without recognizing the Imam of his time dies the death of the Age of Ignorance (before the advent of Islam


Al-Husayn ibn 'Ali Sayyidu'sh-Shuhada**(Peace be Upon him)

Al-Husayn ibn 'Ali Sayyidu'sh-Shuhada
(Peace be Upon him)

Name: al-Husayn.
Title: Sayyidu'sh-Shuhada'.
Agnomen: Abu 'Abdillah.
Father' s name: 'Ali Amir al-Mu'minin.
Mother's name:Fatimah (Daughter of the Holy Prophet).
Birth: In Medina on Thursday, 3rd Sha'ban 4 AH.
Death: Martyred in Karbala' (Iraq) at the age of 57, on Friday, 10th Muharram 61 AH and buried there.

In the House of the Holy Prophet, which presented the best image of both the worlds - the heaven and the earth- a child who benefited humanity as if he was a Divine Impression reflecting the earth, was born on one of the nights of the month of Sha'ban.
His father was Imam 'Ali, the best model of kindness towards his friends and the bravest against the enemies of Islam, and his mother was Hadrat Fatimah, the only daughter and child of the Holy Prophet, who had as universally acknowledged, inherited the qualities of her father.


Imam Husayn, is the third Apostolic Imam.


When the good news of his birth reached the Holy Prophet, he came to his daughter's house, took the newly-born child in his arms, recited adhan and iqamah in his right and left ears respectively, and on the 7th day of his birth, after performing the rites of 'aqlqah, named him al-Husayn, in compliance with Allah's command.


'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas relates: "On the very day when Imam Husayn was born, Allah ordered angel Gabriel to descend and congratulate the Holy Prophet on His Behalf and on his own.


While descending, Gabriel passed over an island where the angel Futrus had been banished due to his delay in executing a commission assigned by Allah.


He was deprived of his wings and expelled to the island where he remained for several years praying and worshipping Allah and asking for His forgiveness.


"When the angel Futrus saw Gabriel, he called out, ' Where are you going, O Gabriel?' To this he replied, ' Husayn, the grandson of Muhammad is born, and for this very reason Allah has commanded me to convey His congratulations to His Apostle.


' Thereupon, the angel said, ' Can you carry me also along with you? May Muhammad recommend my case to Allah.'


Gabriel took the angel along with him, came to the Holy Prophet, offered congratulations to him on behalf of Allah and himself and referred the case of the angel to him.


The Holy Prophet said to Gabriel, 'Ask the angel to touch the body of the newly-born child and return to his place in Heaven.


' On doing this, the angle re-obtained his wings instantly and praising the Holy Prophet and his newly- born grandson, ascended towards the Heaven. Hasan and Husayn, the two sons of the Holy Imam 'Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hadrat Fatimah, our Lady of Light, were respected and revered as the 'Leaders of the Youths of Paradise' as stated by the Holy Prophet.


The Holy Prophet Muhammad, peace be Upon him and his progeny, had openly prophesied that the faith of Islam would be rescued by his second grandson Husayn, when Yazid, son of Mu'awiayh, would endeavour to destroy it.


Yazid was known for his devilish character and brutish conduct.


He was known as the most licentious of men. The people having known and understood the character of Yazid, formed a covenant by which Mu'awiyah could not appoint Yazid as his successor.


This undertaking was given by Mu'awiyah to Imam Hasan from whom Mu`awiyah had snatched power.


Mu'awiyah violated this undertaking and nominated Yazid who succeeded his father.


Immediately as he came to power, Yazid began acting in full accordance with his known character.


He started interfering in the fundamentals of the faith and practiced every vice and wickedness freely with the highest degree of impunity and yet held himself out as the successor of the Holy Prophet, demanding allegiance to himself as the leading guide of the faith.


Paying allegiance to Yazid was nothing short of acknowledging the devil as Cod.


If a divine personality like the holy Imam Husayn had agreed to his authority, it would be actually recommending the devil to humanity in place of Cod.


Yazid demanded allegiance from the Holy Imam Husayn, who could have never agreed to it at any cost.


The people fearing death and destruction at the hands of the tyrant had yielded to him out of fear.


Imam Husayn said that come what- ever may, he would never yield to the devil in place of God and undo what his grandfather, the Holy Prophet had established.


The refusal of the Holy Imam to pay allegiance to this fiend, marked the start of the persecution of the Holy Imam.


As a result he had retired to Medina where he led a secluded life.


Even here he was not allowed to live in peace, and was forced to seek refuge in Mecca where also he was badly harassed, and Yazid plotted to murder him in the very precincts of the great sanctuary of Ka'bah.


In order to safeguard the great sanctuary, Imam Husayn decided to leave Mecca for Kufah just a day before tile haj (pilgrimage).


When asked the reason for the mysterious departure from Mecca foregoing the pilgrim- age which was only the next day Imam Husayn said that he would perform this year's pilgrimage at Karbala', Offering the sacrifice not of any animals, but of his kith and kin and some faithful friends.


He enumerated the names of his kith and kin who would lay down their lives with him in the great sacrifice at Karbala'.


The people of Kufah getting tired of the tyrannic and satanic rule of Yazid, had written innumerable letters and sent emissaries to Imam Husayn to come over and give them guidance in faith.


Although Imam Husayn knew the ultimate end of the invitations, he as the divinely chosen Imam could not refuse to give the guidance sought for.


When the Holy Imam with his entourage had reached karbala', his horse mysteriously stopped and would not move any further.


Upon this the holy Imam declared: "This is the land, the land of sufferings and tortures.


" He alighted from his horse, and ordered his followers to encamp there saying: Here shall we be martyred and our children be killed.


Here shall our tents be burned and our family arrested. This is the land about which my grandfather the Holy Prophet had foretold, and his prophecy will certainly be fulfilled."


On the 7th of Muharram water supply to the lmam's carnp was cut and the torture of thirst and hunger started.


the holy Imam's camp consisted of ladies, innocent children including babies and some male members of the Holy prophet's family; along with a small band of some faithful friends of Imam Husayn who had chosen to die with the Holy Imam, fighting against the devil for the cause of Allah.


* * *
The Day of 'Ashura (10th of Muharram): At dawn the Imam glanced over the army of Yazid and saw 'Umar ibn Sa'd ordering his forces to march to- wards him.


He gathered his followers and addressed them thus: "Allah has, this day, permitted us to be engaged in a Holy War and He shall reward us for our martyrdom.


So prepare yourselves to fight against the enemies of Islam with patience and resistance.


O sons of the noble and self-respecting persons, be patient ! heath is nothing but a bridge which you must cross after facing trials and tribulations so as to reach Heaven and its joys.


Which of you do not like to go from this prison (world) to the lofty palaces (Paradise ) ? " Having heard the Imam's address, all his companions were overwhelmed and cried out, "O our Master! We are ail ready to defend you and your Ahlu 'I-hayt, and to sacrifice our lives for the cause of Islam.


" Imam Husayn sent out from his camp one after an- other to fight and sacrifice their lives in the way of the Lord.


Lastly, when all his men and children had laid down their lives, Imam Husayn brought his six-month old baby son 'Ali al-Asghar, and offering him on his own hands, demanded some water for the baby, dying of thirst.


The thirst of the baby was quenched by a deadly poisoned arrow from the brute's forces, which pinned the baby's neck to the arm of the helpless father.


At last when the six-month old baby also was killed, Imam Husayn addressed Allah: "O Lord! Thy Husayn has offered in Thy way whatever Thou hath blessed him with.


Bless Thy Husayn, O Lord! with the acceptance of this sacrifice.


Everything Husayn could do till now was through Thy help and by Thy Grace." Lastly, Imam Husayn came into the field and was killed, the details of which merciless slaughter are heart rending.


The forces of Yazid having killed Imam Husayn, cut and severed his head from his body and raised it on a lance.


The severed head of the Holy Imam began glorifying Allah from the point of the lance saying, 'Allahu Akbar'.


"All glory be to Allah Who is the Greatest!" After the wholesale, merciless and most brutal slaughter of the Holy Imam with his faithful band, the help- less ladies and children along with the ailing son of Imam Husayn, Imam 'Ali Zaynu 'l-'Abidin, were taken captives.


* * *
Some Sayings of the Holy Prophet During his Lifetime with Reference to Imam Husayn: 1. Hasan and Husayn are the Leaders of the Youths of Paradise.


2. Husayn is from me and I am from Husayn, Allah befriends those who befriend Husayn and He is the enemy of those who bear enmity to him.


3. Whosoever wishes to see such a person who lives on earth but whose dignity is honoured by the Heaven- dwellers, should see my grandson Husayn. 4. O my son! thy flesh is my flesh and thy blood is my blood; thou art a leader, the son of a leader and the brother of a leader; thou art a spiritual guide, the son of a spiritual guide and the brother of a spiritual guide; thou art an Apostolical Imam, the son of an Apostolical Imam and the brother of an Apostolical Imam; thou art the father of nine Imams, the ninth of whom would be the Qa'im (the last infallible spiritual guide). 5. The punishment inflicted on the murderer of Husayn in Hell would be equal to half of the total punishment to be imposed on the entire sinners of the world.


6. When the Holy Prophet informed Hadrat Fatimah of the martyrdom in store for his grandson, she burst into tears and asked, "O my father ! when would my son be martyred?" "In such a critical moment," replied the Holy Prophet, "When neither I nor you, nor 'ALI would be alive." This accentuated her grief and she inquired again, "Who then, O my father, would commemorate Husayn's martyrdom? " The Holy Prophet said, "The men and the women of a particular sect of my followers, who will befriend my Ahlul-Bayt, will mourn for Husayn and commemorate his martyrdom each year in every century." Ibn Sa'd narrates from ash-Sha'bi: Imam 'Ali, while on his way to Siffin, passed through the desert of Karbala', there he stopped and wept very bitterly.


When interrogated regarding the cause of his weeping, he commented that one day he visited the Holy Prophet and found him weeping.


When he asked the Apostle of Allah as to what was the reason which made him weep, he replied, "O 'ALI, Gabriel has just been with me and informed me that my son Husayn would be martyred in Karbala', a place near the bank of the River Euphrates.


This moved me so much that I could not help weeping."


Anas ibn Harith narrates: One day the Holy Prophet ascended the pulpit to deliver a sermon to his associates while Imam Husayn and Imam Hasan were sitting before him.


When his address was over, he put his left hand on Imam Husayn and raising his head towards Heaven, said: "O my Lord! I am Muhammad Thy slave and Thy Prophet, and these two are the distinguished and pious members of my family who would fortify my cause after me.


O my Lord! Gabriel has in- formed me that my son Husayn would be killed. O my Lord! bless my cause in recompense for Husayn's martyrdom, make him the leader of the martyrs, be Thou his helper and guardian and do not bless his murderers."


Sir Muhammad Iqbal says: Imam Husayn uprooted despotism forever till the Day of Resurrection.


He watered the dry garden of freedom with the surging wave of his blood, and indeed he awakened the sleeping Muslim nation. If Imam Husayn had aimed at acquiring a worldly empire, he would not have traveled the way he did (from Medina to Karbala').


Husayn weltered in blood and dust for the sake of truth.


Verily he, therefore, became the bed-rock (foundation) of the Muslim creed; la ila ha illai Allah (There is no god but Allah).


Khwaja Mu'inu 'd-Din Chishti says: He gave his head, but did not put his hand into the hands of Yazid. Verily, Husayn is the foundation of la ila ha illa Allah.


Husayn is lord and the lord of lords.


Husayn himself is Islam and the shield of Islam. Though he gave his head (for Islam) but never pledged Yazid.


Truly Husayn is the founder of "There is no Deity except Allah."


Brown in his A Literary History of Persia writes: As a reminder, the blood-stained field of Karbala' where the grandson of the Apostle of God fell at length, tortured by thirst and surrounded by the bodies of his murdered kinsmen, has been at any time since then sufficient to evoke, even in the most lukewarm and heedless, the deepest emotion, the most frantic grief and the exaltation of spirit before which pain, danger, and death shrink to unconsidered trifles.


Yearly, on the tenth day of Muharram, the tragedy is rehearsed in Persia, in India, in Turkey, in Egypt, wherever a Shi'ite community or colony exists; . . . As I write it all comes back; the wailing chant, the sobbing multitudes, the white raiment red with blood from self inflicted wounds, the intoxication of grief and sympathy.


Allamah Tabatabai writes: Imam Husayn (Sayyidu sh- Shuhada', "the lord among martyrs"), the second child of 'ALI and Fatimah, was born in the year 4 A H, and after the martyrdom of his brother, Imam Hasan Mujtaba, became Imam through Divine Command and his brother's will.


Imam Husayn was Imam for a period of ten years, all but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Mu'awiyah.


Imam Husayn lived under the most difficult outward conditions of suppression and persecution.


This was due to the fact that, first of all, religious laws and regulations had lost much of their weight and credit, and the edicts of the Umayyad government had gained complete authority and power.


Secondly, Mu'awiyah and his aides made use of every possible means to put aside and move out of the way the Household of the Prophet and the Shi'ah, and thus obliterate the name of 'Ali and his family.


And above all, Mu'awiyah wanted to strengthen the basis of the caliphate of his son, Yazid.


who because of his lack of principles and scruples was opposed by a large group of Muslims.


Therefore, in order to quell all opposition, Mu'awiyah had undertaken newer and more severe measures.


By force and necessity Imam Husayn had to endure these days and to tolerate every kind of mental and spiritual agony and affliction from Mu'awiyah and his aides-until in the middle of the year 60 AH, Mu'awiyah died and his son Yazid took his place.


Paying allegiance (bay'ah) was an old Arab practice which was carried out in important matters such as that of kingship and governmentship.


Those who were ruled, and especially the well-known among them, would give their hand in allegiance, agreement and obedience to their king or prince and in this way would show their support for his actions.


Disagreement after allegiance was considered as disgrace and dishonour for a people and, like breaking an agreement after having signed it officially, it was considered as a definite crime.


Following the example of the Holy Prophet, people believed that allegiance, when given by free will and not through force, carried authority and weight.


Mu'awiyah had asked the well-known among the people to give their allegiance to Yazid, but had not imposed this request upon Imam Husayn.


He had especially told Yazid in his last will that if Husayn refused to pay allegiance he should pass over it in silence and overlook the matter, for he had understood correctly the disastrous consequences which would follow if the issue were to be pressed.


But because of his egoism and recklessness, Yazid neglected his father's advice and immediately after the death of his father ordered the governor of Medina either to force a pledge of allegiance from Imam Husayn or send his head to Damascus.


After the governor of Medina informed Imam Husayn of this demand, the Imam, in order to think over the question, asked for a delay and overnight started with his family toward Mecca.


He sought refuge in the sanctuary of God which in Islam is the official place of refuge and security.


This event occurred toward the end of the month of Rajab and the beginning of Sha'ban of 60 AH.


For nearly four months Imam Husayn stayed in Mecca in refuge.


This news spread throughout the Islamic world. On the one hand many people who were tired of the iniquities of Mu'awiyah's rule and were even more dissatisfied when Yazid became caliph, corresponded with Imam Husayn and expressed their sympathy for him.


On the other hand, a flood of letters began to flow, especially from Iraq and particularly the city of Kufah, inviting the Imam to go to Iraq and accept the leadership of the populace there with the aim of beginning an uprising to overcome injustice and iniquity. Naturally, such a situation was dangerous for Yazid.


The stay of Imam Husayn in Mecca continued until the season for pilgrimage when Muslims from all over the world poured in groups into Mecca in order to perform the rites of the hajj.


The Imam discovered that some of the followers of Yazid had entered Mecca as pilgrims (hajj) with the mission to kill the Imam during the rites of hajj with the arms they carried under their special pilgrimage dress (Ehram). The Imam shortened the pilgrimage rites and decided to leave.


Amidst the vast crowd of people he stood up in a short speech announced that he was setting out for Iraq.


In this short speech he also declared that he would be martyred and asked Muslims to help him in attaining the goal he had in view and to offer their lives in the path of God. On the next day he set out with his family and a group of his companions for Iraq.


Imam Husayn was determined not to give his allegiance to Yazid and knew full well that he would be killed.


He was aware that his death was inevitable in the face of the awesome military power of the Umayyads, supported as it was by corruption in certain sectors, spiritual decline, and lack of will power among the people, especially in Iraq.


Some of the outstanding people of Mecca stood in the way of Imam Husayn and warned him of the danger of the move he was making.


But he answered that he refused to pay allegiance and give his approval to a government of injustice and tyranny.


He added that he knew that wherever he turned or went he would be killed.


He would leave Mecca in order to preserve the respect for t}abuse of God and not allow this respect to be destroyed by having his blood spilled there.


While on the way to Kufah and still a few days journey away from the city, he received news that the agent of Yazid in Kufah had put to death the representative of the Imam in that city and also one of the Imam's determined supporters who was a well-known man in Kufah.


Their feet had been tied and they had been dragged through the streets.


The city and its surroundings were placed under strict observation and countless soldiers of the enemy were awaiting him.


There was no way open to him but to march ahead and to face death. It was here that the Imam expressed his definitive determination to go ahead and be martyred; and so he continued on his journey.


Approximately seventy kilometers from Kufah in a desert named Karbala', the Imam and his entourage were surrounded by the army of Yazid.


For eight days they stayed in this spot during which the circle narrowed and the number of the enemy's army increased.


Finally the Imam, with his Household and a small number of companions were encircled by an army of thirty thousand soldiers. During these days the Imam fortified his position and made a final selection of his companions.


At night he called his companions and during a short speech stated that there was nothing ahead but death and martyrdom. He added that since the enemy was concerned only with his person he would free them from all obligations so that anyone who wished could escape in the darkness of the night and save his life.


Then he ordered the lights to be turned out and most of his companions, who had joined him for their own advantage, dispersed. Only a handful of those who loved the truth about forty of his close aides and some of the Banu Hashim remained.


Once again the Imam assembled those who were left and put them to a test. He addressed his companions and Hashimite relatives, saying again that the enemy was concerned only with his person.


Each could benefit from the darkness of the night and escape the danger. But this time the faithful companions of the Imam answered each in his own way that they would not deviate for a moment from the path of truth of which the Imam was the leader and would never leave him alone.


They said they would defend his Household to the last drop of their blood and as long as they could carry a sword. On the ninth day of the month the last challenge to choose between "allegiance or war" was made by the enemy to the Imam.


The Imam asked for a delay in order to worship overnight and became determined to enter battle on the next day. On the tenth day of Muharram of the year 61(680) the Imam lined up before the enemy with his small band of followers, less than ninety persons consisting of forty of his companions, thirty some members of the army of the enemy that joined him during the night and day of war, and his Hashimite family of children, brothers, nephews, nieces and cousins.


That day they fought from morning until their final breath, and the Imam, the young Hashimites and the companions were all martyred. Among those killed were two children of Imam Hasan, who were only thirteen and eleven years old; and a five-year-old child and a suckling baby of Imam Husayn. The army of the enemy, after ending the war, plundered the haram of the Imam and burned his tents. They decapitated the bodies of the martyrs, denuded them and threw them to the ground without burial.


Then they moved the members of the haram, all of whom were helpless women and girls, along with the heads of the martyrs, to Kufah. Among the prisoners there were three male members: a twenty-two years old son of Imam Husayn who was very ill and unable to move, namely, 'Ali ibn al-Husayn, the fourth Imam; his four years old son, Muhammad ibn 'Ali, who became the fifth Imam; and finally Hasan al-Mujtaba, the son of the second Imam who was also the son-in-law of Imam Husayn and who, having been wounded during the war, lay among the dead. They found him near death and through the intercession of one of the generals did not cut off his head. Rather, they took him with the prisoners to Kufah and from there to Damascus before Yazid. The event of Karbala', the capture of the women and children of the Household of the Prophet, their being taken as prisoners from town to town and the speeches made by the daughter of 'Ali, Zaynab, and the fourth Imam who were among the prisoners, disgraced the Umayyads.


Such abuse of the Household of the Prophet annulled the propaganda which Mu'awiyah had carried out for years. The matter reached such proportions that Yazid in public disowned and condemned the actions of his agents. The event of Karbala' was a major factor in the overthrow of Umayyad's rule although its effect was delayed.


It also strengthened the roots of Shi'ism. Among its immediate results were the revolts and rebellions combined with bloody wars which continued for twelve years. Among those who were instrumental in the death of the Imam not one was able to escape revenge and punishment.


Anyone who studies closely the history of the life of Imam Husayn and Yazid and the conditions that prevailed at that time, and analyses this chapter of Islamic history, will have no doubt that in those circumstances there was no choice before Imam Husayn but to be killed. Swearing allegiance to Yazid would have meant publicly showing contempt for Islam, something which was not possible for the Imam, for Yazid not only showed no respect for Islam and its injunction but also made a public demonstration of impudently treading under foot its basis and its laws. Those before him, even if they opposed religious injunctions, always did so in the guise of religion, and at least formally respected religion.


They took pride in being companions of the Holy Prophet and the other religious figures in whom people believed. From this it can be concluded that the claim of some interpreters of these events is false when they say that the two brothers, Hasan and Husayn, had two different tastes and that one chose the way of peace and the other the way of war, so that one brother made peace with Mu'awiyah although he had an army of forty thousand while the other went to war against Yazid with an army of forty.


For we see that this same Imam Husayn, who refused to pay allegiance to Yazid for one day, lived for ten years under the rule of Mu'awiyah, in the same manner as his brother who also had endured for ten years under Mu'awiyah, without opposing him.


It must be said in truth that if Imam Hasan or Imam Husayn had fought Mu'awiyah they would have been killed without there being the least benefit for Islam.


Their deaths would have had no effect before the righteous appearing policy of Mu'awiyah, a competent politician who emphasized his being a companion of the Holy Prophet, the "scribe of the revelation," and "uncle of the faithful" and who used every stratagem possible to preserve a religious guise for his rule. Moreover, with his ability to set the stage to accomplish his desires he could have had them killed by their own people and then assumed a state of mourning and sought to revenge their blood, just as he sought to give the impression that he was avenging the killing of the third caliph.


(Shl'ite Islam) al-Imam al-Husayn ibn 'Ali, peace be Upon him, said:


Beware of your apologies; for a true believer does not sin and does not have to apologize, whereas the hypocrite commits sins everyday and apologizes everyday.


When other people turn to you in need, consider it a favour of Allah. Do not be wearied of this favour, or it will move on to someone else.


Experience enhances the intellect.

The Journey of Imam Hussain (a.s)

Imam Hussain (as) sets out on his Journey

Al Hussain, the blessings of God be on him, set out from Mecca to Iraq on the day of Muslim's (attempted) rising in Kufa, that is the day of Tarwiya, after staying in Mecca for the rest of Shaban, the month of Rmadhan, Shawwal and Dhu al Qada and eight days of Dhu- al-Hijja in the year 60 A.H. (680).


During his stay in Mecca, peace be on him, a number of Hijazis and Basrans had gathered around him, joining themselves to his household and his retainers (mawali).


When he determined on journeying to Iraq, he made the circumbulation of the (sacred) House and the ritual running between al-Safa and al-Marwa. Then he left the state of consecration (for the pilgrimage) (after) he had performed the lesser pilgrimage (umra) because he was not able to perform the greater pilgrimage (hajj).


Through fear of being apprehended in Mecca, and being taken to Yazid b. Muiawiya, he, peace be on him, had set out early with his House, his sons and those of his Shia who had joined him.


[As it has been reported to us:]


News of Muslim's (capture and death) had not yet reached him because (it had only happened) on the day he set out.


[It is reported that al-Farazdaq, the poet, said:]


I made the pilgrimage with my mother in the year 60 A.H. (680). I was driving her camel when I entered the sanctuary. (There) I met al- Husayn b. Ali, peace be on them, leaving Mecca accompanied by (some men carrying) swords and shields.


"Whose caravan is this?" I asked.


"Al-Husayn b. Ali's, peace be on them," was the reply. So I went up and greeted him.


"May God grant you your request and (fulfil) your hope in what you want, by my father and mother, son of the Apostle of God," I said to him. "But what is making you hurry away from the pilgrimage?"


"If I did not hurry away, I would be apprehended," he replied. Then he asked me: "Who are you?"


"An Arab," I answered and he did not question me (about myself) any further.


"Tell me about the people you have left behind you," he asked.


"You have asked a good (question)," I answered. "The hearts of the people are with you but their swords are against you. The decision comes from Heaven and God does what he wishes."


"You have spoken truly of the affair belonging to God," he replied.


"Every day He (is involved) in (every) matter" (LV, 29) If fate sends down what we like and are pleased with, we praise God for His blessings. He is the One from Whom help should be sought in order to give thanks to Him. However, although fate may frustrate (our) hopes, yet He does not destroy (the souls of) those whose intention is the truth and whose hearts are pious."


"True, God brings you what you wish for (ultimately) and guards you against what you are threatened by," I said. Then I asked him about matters concerning vows and pilgrimage rites. He told me about them and then moved his mount off, saying farewell, and so we parted.


When al-Husayn b. Ali, peace be on them, left Mecca, Yahya b. Said b. al-'As met him with a group (of men). They had been sent to him by 'Amr b. Said.


"Come back from where you are going," they ordered. But he refused (to obey) them and continued. The two groups came to blows and hit at each other with whips. However al-Husayn and his followers resisted fiercely. Al-Husayn continued until he got to al- Tanim. There he met a camel-train which had come from Yemen.


He hired from its people (additional) camels for himself and his followers to ride.


Then he said to the owners (of the camels): "Whoever (of you) wants to come with us to Iraq, we will pay his hire and enjoy his company and whoever wants to leave some way along the road we will pay his hire for the distance he has travelled."


Some of the people went with him but others refused. Abd Allah b. Jafar sent his sons, Awn and Muhammad, after him, and he wrote a letter to him which he gave to them. In it, he said:


I ask you before God (to return) if you have set out when you see my letter. For I am very concerned because the direction in which you are heading will have within it your destruction, and the extirpation of your House. If you are destroyed today, the light of the land will be extinguished; for you are the (standard) of those who are rightly-guided and the hope of the believers. Do not hurry on your journey as I am following this letter. Greetings. Abd Allah, then went to 'Amr b. Sad and asked him to write to al-Husayn (offering him) a guarantee of security, and (promising) to favour him, so that he would return from where he was going. Amr b. Said wrote a letter in which he offered him favour and a guarantee of security for himself. He dispatched it with his brother Yahya b.


Said. Yahya b. Said went after him (as did) Abd Allah after dispatching his sons. The two handed ('Amr's) letter to him and strove (to persuade) him to return.


"I have seen the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, in my sleep," answered (al-Husayn), "and he ordered me (to do) what I am carrying out."


"What was that vision?" they both asked.


"I have not told anyone of it," he answered, "and I am not going to tell anyone until I meet my Lord, the Mighty and Exalted."


When 'Abd Allah b. Ja'far despaired of (persuading) him, he told his sons, Awn and Muhammad, to stay with him, to go with him and to struggle on behalf of him. He returned with Yahya b. Sa'id to Mecca.


Al Husayn, peace be on him, pressed on swiftly and directly towards Iraq until he reached Dhat' Irq.


When Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad had learnt of the journey of al- Husayn, peace be on him, from Mecca to Kufa, he had sent al- Husayn b. Numayr, the commander of the bodyguard (shurta), to station himself at al-Qadisiyya and to set up a (protective) link of cavalry between the area of al-Qadisiyya to Khaffan and the area of al-Qadisiyya to al-Qutqutaniyya.


He informed the men that al- Husayn was heading for Iraq.


When al-Husayn, peace be on him, reached al-Hajiz (a hill above) Batn al-Rumma, he sent Qays b. Mushir al Saydawi - some say it was his brother-in-nurture, Abd Allah b. Yuqtur to Kufa. For he, peace be upon him, had not yet learnt the news of (the fate of) Ibn 'Aqil. He sent a letter with him:


In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate From al-Husayn b. Ali To his brother believers and Muslims, Greetings to you, I praise God before you, other than Whom there is no deity. Muslim b. Aqil's letter came to me, informing me of your sound judgement and the agreement of your leaders to support us, and to seek our rights. I have asked God to make your actions good and reward you with the greatest reward. I set out to you from Mecca on 8th of Dhu al-Hijja, the Day of Tarwiya. When my messenger reaches you, be urgent and purposeful in your affiars, for I am coming to you within the (next few) days. Greeting and the mercy and blessings of God.


Muslim had written to al-Husayn seventeen days before he was killed and the Kufans had written to him: "Here you have a hundred thousand swords. Do not delay."


Qays b. Mushir went towards Kufa with the letter. However, when he reached al-Qadisiyya, al-Husayn b. Numayr apprehended him and sent him to Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad.


"Go up on the pulpit," Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad ordered him, "and curse the liar, al-Husayn b. Ali, peace be on him"


Qays went up on the pulpit and praised and glorified God. Then he said:


People, this man, al-Husayn b. 'Ali the best of God's creatures, the son of Fatima, the daughter of the Apostle, may God bless him and his family and grant them peace, (is nearby). I am his messenger to you. Answer him. Then he cursed Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad and his father and prayed for forgiveness for Ali b. Abi Talib and blessed him. 'Ubayd Allah ordered him to be thrown from the top of the palace.


They threw him and he was smashed to pieces.


[It is (also) reported:]


He fell on the ground in chains and his bones were crushed and there only remained to him his last breath. A man called 'Abd al- Malik b.


'Umayr al-Lakhmi came to him and cut his throat. When he was told that that had been a shameful (thing to do) and he was blamed for it, he said: "I wanted to relieve him (of his suffering)."

the 10th of Muharram(Ashura, )

The Religion of Islam was presented to the world and human society Forthrightly; no problem, or issue, which was necessary for of society in order to prosper, was left unsolved by the time the Prophet passed away. All issues were made clear to people whether outspokenly, or contained within the folds of decrees that were enunciated. One of the issues of significance which the Prophet made most clear during his lifetime of prophethood and which the mentioned repeatedly was that of leadership and the question of the person who would assume the role of leader after his death.

Islam was not a religion that merely confined itself to matters concerning morality, or set forth advice on matters related to living. The Prophet was not a man who abstained from the world and relegated himself to delivering a few sermons. If it had been so, his cry and call would have been lost amidst the clamours of history, as have the voices of several other pious sages. If so, then this profound revolution would never have reached fruition, nor could we have learned from this perfect religion of a range of issues such as the regulation of society, the relationship of this world of ours with the next, the duties of individuals in society, the moral and material affairs, legal and cultural matters, penal codes, political issues, all issues of the moment and matters relating to philosophy and logic.

What the Prophet mainly directed his preaching to during chiefly 13-year stay in Mecca focussed on one aspect the oneness of God, the advent of his messengers, the essence and finality of prophethood and lastly the final return to God and the resurrection the prevailing milieu, the very atmosphere and circumstances then prevailing did not make it possible or convenient given the difficulties he had to cope with at the time to elaborate on and explicate on divine decrees to any full extent the prophet actually was unable to give practical cohesive form to a society based on the concept of the Qur’anic unity in God but this he was able to do only after 10 years after his migration to Medina. Here he was able to lay the groundwork for an edifice, which he buttressed with his proclamations. It was there in Medina that he enlarged the number of his followers and warriors many issues relating to politics, military and social affairs were expounded and put into practice.

It was during this Medina period that the prophet was able to organize Islamic society, a thing which was not practicable to do in Mecca and for which there was no groundwork even the very first fundamentals of belief and the initial commands of Islam they, the Meccans, were not inclined to accept, but they were ready to carp against and quarrel with the prophet. Hence to institute a new organization, to create an entirely different and changed atmosphere, to promulgate a new set of laws and establish a new society based on them was simply out of the question.

Therefore, the Prophet, restricted himself when at Mecca to preaching and propagating on the concept of the Oneness of God in order to that this may form a background and take a hold on the hearts of the people until the time was ripe for further advances to be made. If, however the Prophet deemed it sufficient to preach alone Islam would never have taken the revolutionary turn it did take, nor would a nation within Islam have taken shape. Today we see a religion spread from one end of the world to the other by the name of Islam.

This would hardly have been attained through preaching alone. To establish and consummate and complete a religion it is necessary to have a political and legal structure and beyond that a nation. Likewise, the Prophet who had both a divine office -that of prophethood- as well as a worldly one had necessarily to look to political and governmental organization.

The positions and offices he held were bestowed upon him by God as he was the seal of the prophets. He was a paragon of virtue from whom all could learn and a beacon of prosperity.

The Prophet created institution basing them on the high pedestal of Qur’anic standards. Then again he placed a great deal of stress on leadership that he viewed as essential to the existence of Islam and a system based on it. He named Ah as the leader of the nation and a guide to the interpretation of the Qur’an.

The Prophet, in addition to being a spiritual teacher was also a political leader, the standard bearer of a revolution. He had a Divine mission to invite people to God and demolish wrong beliefs, wrong deeds and deviated systems then prevalent in human society he replaced all these obsolete systems with those rooted in the Oneness of God and in divine policy, which in effect was the law of logic and reason. His mission was far reaching and aimed at embracing human beings all over the world and welding them into a single nation with belief in the unity of God, riveted to and directing their vision god ward endeavouring to perfection and eternity and ultimately basing their day-to-day material lives on a grid of moral injunctions founded on a principles derived from the Qur’an.

Indeed it is no simple matter to change an entire society. To speak, or write, is perhaps easier than it is to practice. A prophet has to be careful not to trespass on that which is considered to be universal sanctities, or those having their origins in nature or the very matrix of society. Long established traditions cannot be torn away at once.

Hence the prophet was at first obliged to tread the path of preaching in order to gather the people around him and draw their hearts towards him.

When attracted to him, he could then set out his proposals before them and acquaint them with his mission.

The next stage would then be easier when he would be able to mould their lives according to law, organize them into a society and regulate society in terms of a system that system being Islam. This is indeed what the Prophet did in Mecca and later in Medina.

What is most remarkable in all this is the fact that right from the very inception the Prophet concentrated on one thing and that was the Oneness of God (Tawhid) and this idea of Tawhid (Oneness of God) surpassed everything else one that embraced all things.

Here was the foundation of a revolution paving the way for a new religion and one that was so perfect that it had no need to borrow from any other religion and stood in all things.

As such Islam covered every aspect of society and proved to be an ideal system through which social organization and political life were ordered and so Islam turned out to be more than just a religion.

Islam in its vastness took within the folds of its soaring outspread wings every social and political form as to be considered a thing of such vast wonder and greatness by scholars.

A Frances scholar Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) has this to say of Islam: “The holy religion (Christianity) has always been separated from the ruling class. There was no compulsory link between it and the government. But Muhammad in this regard had a very prudential and salutary approach since he used his political wing to good effect in ordering his affairs.”[1]

George Saiten, historian, has this to say: “For the first time a religion was to become a real motor for a system of great imperial power. The worldly rulers may be changed but the religion will have to remain a thing everlasting. The Muhammadan religion or Islam is the third and last of the monotheistic religions”.[2]

The prophet did not neglect paying attention and of the people.

He never failed to appoint a leader capable of guiding society in accordance with Qur’anic standards. Yet, the issue of leadership was distorted and embroiled in controversy after his demise. Those making decisions strayed away from the direction given by the Prophet. Whatever recommendation the Prophet made in this regard were conveniently forgotten, or ignored. The commandments set forth in the Qur’an and the entire body of philosophical and social thought, which were the keys to solution of such problems were never availed of.

And besides all this the person at the helm of affairs was not one appointed by the Prophet although he had himself nurtured the Prophet in his childhood and was well aware of the Qur’anic instructions and Islam is regulations. The absence of a responsible person at the top had a negative impact and adversely affected later developments. Events kept on moving and moving and the currents kept flowing until the third one (Caliph) Othmam, came to power.

In his time the mistakes became so apparent and so glaring that they could not possibly be overlooked, nor did they escape any ones notice.

Muslims in the end gathered. Together and decided to dismiss the Caliph (Othman) and to kill him.

Now it came to the turn of Ali bin Abi Talib to assume the seat of the Caliphate.

The Bani Ummayud group whose leader was then Muawiya was not happy with this development.

They disliked the idea of Ali assuming power. There were 3 reasons for their resentment:

1) Envy and rivalry. They had hoped to take power after Othman and allow affairs to continue as they were before.

2) Enemity. They had not forgotten the blows dealt on them by the sword of Ali and Hamza in the early days of Islam. These dark, angry thoughts still rankled in their breasts since their ancestors were killed by Ali’s sword a thing that caused them a great deal of agony and pain of mind. Hamza, they had already killed at the Battle of Badr and his body was torn to pieces. Now Ali was within range of their evil hands and so he became the target of their revenge.

3) Betrayal. They did not wish to see Islam making progress. But here was a man in the person of Ah very serious, very strong very straightforward and one very eagerly bent on doing everything he possibly could to invigorate Islam.

What they hoped for and what actually was happening ran counter to all they the desired. Hope? To them there could have been no hope as long as Ali adhered to the Qur’an and the traditions of the Prophet. They knew and dreaded Ali’s qualities since he was honest humble a servant of the poor and pious, contented brave a warrior and an adept at Qur’anic science. What they had spoiled this man could restore afresh.

Under the rule of such a man none that broke the law would escape, or go unaccounted.

They foresaw that Islam would regain its original effulgence and assert its authority. A return of this sort they hardly desired. The rule of Ali was a source of constant dread to the hypocrites at Damascus - - the pagans who took on the guise of Islam so that they could take shelter under it. They concocted plot after plot and finally contrived a very deep one. If it was not possible to stop the progress of Islam it was possible to stop Ali by creating hindrances in his way, causing setbacks and obstacles for him and such like. They created battles and battles draped Ali on to plain plateaus and deserts. Time which was precious to him, he had to spend in conflict. A conflict is one of the best means for consuming a person 5 time, the time of a man they wanted out of their way.

This is exactly what happened to men like Abuzar, Ammar Yaser, Hujaz bin Addi, Malik Ashtar, Mohammed bin Abi Bakr, who were all killed.

And finally they plotted and planned a plan that went all too well. They assassinated Ali as he was offering his prayers to God at the mosque. Even as they succeeded in this wicked scheme of theirs, they stored it up as part of their experience which they later used in the identical way to get rid of the Second Imam, Imam Hasan. They went step by step - - from betrayal to battle and continuous conflict alongside a propaganda campaign in order to darken the facts and obfuscate the reality and make nebulous the truth. Muawiya used every wicked stratagem available to him.

He was the man who fought Ali and now he could not bear to see Hasan occupying his seat.

He resorted to every trick every cunning he used to act out his treachery.

Things became very difficult for Imam Hasan.

Finally, the outcome was a peace. Imam Hasan saw himself deserted by his army generals and the other commanders had no way left to them but to stop Muawiya by coming to terms in a peace accord with him, which terms he was obliged to be bound by.

Imam Hasan took the view that such a peace would be in the interests of his people.

Peace appeared to him as the only way in which to prevent the blood of Muslims from being shed and best to preserve the newly established order from being shattered.

He, therefore, suggested and wrote down the conditions for a peace, which could have ensured the safety of the religion, and of the Muslims and of the future itself. All he foresaw and embodied in this peace treaty. Muawiya accepted its condition.

But after he signed the treaty Muawiya picked and reneged on what he had agreed too earlier.

Muawiya did not honour a single condition of the peace treaty. He transformed Islamic society into almost a farcical and evil one and spread a reign of terror everywhere.

A great need of the time became the need to set things in order again.

But the worst happened.

Yazid became the Caliph; he now sat on the seat of the Prophet. It was Muawiyas intention that his son, Yazid, should come to power. Yazid was s villain of the worst dye and a drunkard. He came to power through the use of force, terror, bribes and every wicked means at his command.

All and any obstacles on his way he cleared with the sword or using poison.

Imam Hasan was poisoned because had he lived he would never have allowed Yazid to come to power.

Yazid was a mere youth, easygoing and a debauchee, born to a Christian mother and brought up by her. He was from his young days addicted to drink and the rearing of dogs. It was such a youth who took control of the government in an Islamic domain where the Qur’an and the mosques were predominant and where from the minarets was sounded the call of ‘Allaho-akbar’ and witness was borne in the recital which said: “I gave evidence that God is One and that Muhammad (S) is His servant and messenger.” It was in this milieu that the youth Yazid reigned supreme as the Caliph of the Muslims.

However little by little he is seen being entangled in the knot of great problem - - that knot which he had to unravel at any cost was none other than Imam Husayn.

When a ruler happens to be a loose character, wanton, villain, cunning, nefarious and unprincipled it obvious that the entire country would be suffused and imbued with the very qualities of such a ruler. Sin became common. Wrong ceased to be wrong because it was so widely prevalent.

Crime was no more wicked since it was the order of the day.

Every conceivable practice that was prohibited in Islam took hold of nearly all the youth.

All sense of values was in confusion and the distinction between what was good and bad became blurred. In short all Islamic lands were engulfed in all forms of sin and crime.

A fetid smell emanating from sin pervaded the air everywhere and the people were so immured to such repellent odours that anything fragrant came to be abhorred.

In such an environment as this Truth was hidden and suppressed, the Qur’an was abandoned as no one appeared to have anything to do with it. Religion was in recession. Christians and Jews gained the upper hand over Muslims.

A great shadow of gloom spread over all things. Society came to be covered over by a thick, murky mist, which was nothing if dreadful. A saviour was the need and sacrifice and flame of faith was the call that rent the air in such an atmosphere.

A leader of a nation was required to revolt against and uproot what was rotten in society and put to right the things that had gone wrong. Real and true Islam was the hidden call.

One was needed who could rescue mankind. One who would be prepared to give of his own blood to wash clean the land of all the murk and foul filth, which encrusted it. Blood, only blood could do that.

And it was none other than Husayn task.

And that one was Husayn the grandson of the Prophet.

It was for him to come to the rescue. Qualities that distinguished the members of the Prophet’s house were patience, fortitude, tolerance and endurance.

They refrained from bloodshed and held back from violence directing their efforts to the guidance of the people.

This was very evident during the rule of Ali bin Abi Talib.

Three battles known by the names Jamal, Siffin and Nehrawan took place during his time but he did not initiate any of them. He always tried to solve the problems by talking to his enemies. Like Imam Hasan, he preferred peace to war.

But then, after the martyrdom of Imam Hasan the people of Mecca and Medina, the companions of the Prophet who were still alive and above them all Imam Husayn became seriously concerned and apprehensive at the unchecked influence of the Bani Ummayds who were becoming a fearful threat to Islam and to the healthy society that the Prophet had laboured so hard to establish.

After giving the most serious thought to this state of affairs they concluded that there was no and no solution to take up the sword.

A bloody uprising was the key to the problem.

Yazid on the other hand was intent on cornering Imam Husayn in order to have him acknowledge his authority.

Imam Husayn was in Medina at the time.

Yazid wrote to the governor of Medina, Walid bin Otaba, asking him to obtain Imam Husayn’s acceptance of his authority.

This, if done, was tantamount toLegitimizing Yazid’s.

To confer such legitimacy on a person such as Yazid was impossible to the Imam.

When Walid relayed Yazid’s request to him, this was his reply: “When you inform the people of Muawiya’s death and ask them to acknowledge Yazid’s authority, then call me too.

I will come to the mosque and address the people as to what I should do.”

In fact Yazid’s agents were busy hounding the Imam and he did not feel at all easy at this in the prevailing circumstances. Often he used to awaken the people from their deep slumber at nights and worshipped God near the grave of his grandfather, the Prophet.

It was the 3rd of Sha’ban in the year 60 of Hijra.

Imam Husayn left for Mecca and stayed there till the month of Dhul-Hijja in the same year. As the pilgrimage season approached he too readied himself to perform the Hajj ceremonies.

He put on the Hajj garb (Ihram) and stayed on till the 8th of that month engaged in prayer and worship.

From time to time he used to come amidst the people and talk to them.

He headed for Iraq even while his Hajj remained yet incomplete and unfinished. His journey to Iraq shows that there were matters of moment that were drawing him that way. He had received several invitations from Iraq, which he felt impelled to respond to by going over there.

The caravan of the revolution was on its way. Imam Husayn was its captain. The route was long and the journey arduous. Whenever and wherever he stopped he explained to people the reason for his mission at every stopping place, at every point where people thronged to welcome him the Imam enlightened them on the purpose of his journey and on the parlous state of events unfolding under Yazid’s dispensation. All along the route as he went by villages, dwellers both high and low, vagabonds and wanderers in the desert and even humble shepherds began to know of Yazid’s nefarious character and deeds.

But since the Imam could not enter the larger cities and towns on the way due to the presence of Yazid’s armed men, he chose to skirt them going through villages and plains.

Although there were many open-minded and well informed people in these cities and towns who were very much against Yazid’s atrocities and cursed, they were reluctant to come openly out on the Imam’s side for several reasons.

For one, they were not fully aware of the far-reaching implications if the Imam’s uprising. Secondly, many of them had reconciled themselves to living and adopting their lives within Yazid iniquitous rule.

And lastly it was sheer mental apathy and an unwillingness to take up something new, preferring to be content with what they were familiar with. But inspite of all this, there were still those, although a very few, who were prepared to leave all behind and join Husayn’s caravan of revolution.

As the caravan proceeded on its way distressing news kept reaching the Imam.

One of these had to do with the martyrdom of that great personality of Islam - - the brave, pious and straight forward one, Muslim bin Aqil of the house of Thalaiba. Muslim who was a cousin of the Imam was earlier sent by him to kufa as his deputy. He was martyred by the agents of Ibn Ziad, the governor of Kufa. Muslim stood out against the traitors with great courage up to the time of his martyrdom.

At long last the caravan kept moving closer to its destination, when it come to Halt on the west plain of Karbala’ on the first day of the month of Muharram in the year 61 of Hijra.

Imam Husayn ordered that tents be set up close to the banks of the river Furat (Euphrates). Days passed quickly by until it came to the ninth day (Tasu’a) when as evening set in soldiers sent by Yazid grouped in large numbers attacked the Imam’s camp.

The Imam sent Abbas, his brother and a few others to talk to those who commanded the enemy army.

It ended with Abbas proclaiming loudly to them the following: “We want from you the time tonight that Imam Husayn has asked me to request of you so that it may be offered up in prayer and worship of God. Tomorrow we shall meet again under an umbrella of swords.”

Night fell, embracing the desert in its spell.

All was silent, calm and eerily wonderful with full moon lighting up the scene like a premonition of what was to follow.

The Imam looked around seeing himself surrounded by his friends and relatives and spoke to them thus: “The covenant I overlook and now ignore, the oath of allegiance to me you have taken and yokes you to me I lift from you and leave you to yourselves. You are free, there is no obligation to bind you and I shall hold you no longer. You can go and leave me to myself. Leave this land availing yourself of the veil of night, which can act as cover for you taking any direction in which you wish to go.

I leave you to this night and to the tracks of the desert.

These soldiers of Yazid’s army have business with me, not with you.”

Death lay ahead, waiting. There was no victory. This was the meaning of the Imam’s words and they fell heavily indeed on those still captivated by the world and its several attractions. To die in the way of belief was not easy for one without belief. Where there was nothing to gain, there was no temptation. Sadly, there were several among the Imam’s entourage who were too weak and did not have the mettle to stay on. So they left betaking themselves and leaving the Imam.

But there were the few, and they stayed behind solid, unflinching and ardent in their faith, to which the greatest temptation was the very person of the Imam, himself. Death in a cause and for the sake of their religion was no cheap commodity - - it was far too precious and it was harder indeed to desert the Imam.

The fateful day dawned. The Imam mustered his small force, which was in stark contrast to the thousands arrayed on the enemy side, and readied them to do battle.

And then it began in earnest. It was the force of faith on one side against the forces of tyranny on the other.

The Imam’s was a small force but they were fighting a holy war and defending a cause. Hence this gave them an unimagined and extraordinary burst of strength helping them to fight bravely.

Each warrior killed several of the enemies with ease. There were 72 men on the Imam’s side as against the thousands of Yazid’s men.

It was not here a question of numbers - - it was that of belief, faith and a cause.

Faith shone out fully among that small group - - it was bright and brilliant. The enemy lacking any kind of belief and lacking in the strength that only faith can give were confused by the astounding courage of that small force confronting them and were overtaken by a nameless dread.

This was why the Imam’s men were able to penetrate deep into the heart of Yazid’s army.

Wherever they thrust, they caused a rout and consternation among the enemy, many of which the Imam’s men killed until they were martyred.

It will be in point to digress hereto see what it was that made such a battle possible unequal though the forces were, what it was in the environment and upbringing of the Imam’s followers that made such singular and indomitable courage possible. One knows all too well that Islam has restricted such lax sports as gambling but encouraged others like horse riding and archery. The purpose, of course, was to encourage skill in such sports, but beyond this Islam finds a deeper purpose, which is to develop such noble qualities as fearlessness, strength and courage under all circumstances and in particular to stand opposed to the enemy and to tyranny in every form.

There is a well-known saying of the Imam wherein he says, “you should take care of the health of your bodies as long as you are alive.” The idea was to be able to live pure, clean lives and build up strength against abominations and the evil of what is inimical to such a life, as is tyranny.

Those present on that Ashur’a day with Imam Husayn were trained under his father Ali bin Talib and dyed in these manly virtues.

They had seen and been with the best of soldiers and generals of Islam.

In their hearts there still shone forth the flame of a burning love and affection for the Prophet and his family made them desire death in preference to a life without them.

Sincerity was their currency and faith that which moved in their very veins.

They were in fact the heroes of history and its pride.

That night was a time of waiting which they spent in polishing their swords even as they kept reciting verses from the holy Book and saying their prayers.

They were those who were enchanted by truth, as if the very taste of truth were always upon their tongues.

All was action to them and they waited the moment of great action. They waited awake till dawn for the moment they looked forward keenly to. A blood - red dawn broke forth with the rising of the sun in the East and enfolded the earth with its red-shot colour and Husayn took his small brave force out into the field of battle to confront the forces the dark forces of evil. A’bes bin Abi SHabib Shakery one of the companions asked his friend Shozab, a scholar, what his feelings were at the time and he said he was proud to be in the company of the Prophet grandson and more to be among those who were going into martyrdom.

A’bes then said this was just what he felt too about him. Both then took the Imam’s permission and leave before proceeding into the battle and martyrdom. It was the custom then to first take leave of the Imam before battle and A’bes addressed him thus: “O Husayn, there is none more dear to me in all the world than you.

Had I the power I would have rescued you from the clutches of these tyrants.

I have nothing now but the breath of this life, which stirs within my body and this I offer in sacrifice to you and your father’s religion.” With these stirring words he bade farewell to the Imam and rode out into the field. Rabee bin Tameem one of Yazid’s men had this to say of him: “When I saw A’bes I recognized him as I had know him before. I have not known anyone to be more courageous.

So, I shouted, “This is the lion,” in order to alert my colleagues.”

A’bes as he strode in stood out alone as none among Yazid’s men dared confront him. Omar Sa’ad, Yazid’s commander was furious at this and ordered a group of his men to surround and attack him with another group throwing stones at him.

A’bes seeing that there was no one prepared to combat him singly with the sword but that he was being got at in this cowardly way with stones flung at him, removed his coat of armor and walked into the thick of the enemy with nothing else but his sword and fought bravely on.

Of this scene Rabee bin Tamim narrates: “By God, I saw that in whatever direction A’bes went there were hundreds of men scattering in a mad stampede.

The enemy saw that he could not be overcome and so they surrounded him from every side.

As he had received great many wounds from the stones flung at him and with sword cuts, he fell.

A little later I saw a group with one holding his severed head and each claiming to have killed him.”

To this their commander Omar Sa’ad said: “None of you singly has killed him. All of you together alone were able to kill him.”

Another of the brave ones was Abu Thamameh Saidari. As noon approached he went to the Imam and said: “O Husayn, these men will kill you. As long as I am alive I will not allow them to do this.

I should be killed first.

I want to pray my last noon prayers behind you.”

The Imam thanked him and blessed him then saying: “Go and ask these people to give us time to pray.”

Then there was Jaber bin Orawa Ghaffari.

He was an old man. He had seen the Prophet and had taken part in many a battle including that of Badr and Siffin. This old man who had the courage and determination of a youth tying a cloth around his waist and a scarf over his head so that his eyebrows would at no time cover his eyes went forward to battle killing sixty of the enemy before he was martyred.

Imam Husayn is reported to have said when he saw the old man fighting: “God thanks you for your efforts old man.”

Next came Muslim bin Aousaj’an Asadi, a brave man whose bravery had won him a great deal of fame. When Muslim bin Aqil was appointed the Imam’s representative in Kufa, Aousaj’a acted as his deputy in charge of procuring arms, collecting funds and making known of the Imam’s authority to the people of the area.

On that night before when Imam Husayn urged those who wish to go to leave him Muslim bin Aousaj’a had this to say in reply: “O, son of the Prophet of God, we leave you here and go to save ourselves? How then do we answer God? By God, I shall not depart from you until I have thrust my lance into the very heart of the enemy.

As long as I have strength to hold up my sword I shall fight the enemy.

If not with a sword, I shall fight them with stones.

I shall never leave you and may God be witness that we have not deserted the Prophet. If I am killed and brought back to life and killed yet again and my body burnt to ashes, and this is repeated again and again seventy times, I shall not desert you. Now there is only this one martyrdom for me and then eternity.

This I shall not give up.”

Muslim went out into the battlefield killing his enemies until he was himself martyred. Imam Husayn came to him as he lay fallen followed by Habib ibn Mazaher who was a friend of his. Habib telling him it was hard for him to see him in such a condition nevertheless congratulated him for gaining Heaven to which Muslim rejoined saying, “May God bless you with good tidings.” Habib then said: “I hoped to be of service to you, but I know this cannot be because I too will soon be killed.” Muslim his voice feeble said once more, “My only will is to see that Imam be not left alone. Stay by his side at any cost.”

Next comes Omar bin Junada Ansari, a youth whose father Junada bin Ka’ab Ansari was killed early in the battle. His mother had this to say to him: “O, my son, get up an go into the battlefield and let the Imam see how you kill the enemy and how you get killed.” The boy approached the Imam to seek his permission but the Imam seeing he was but a youth and considering the fact that his death might fall too heavily on his mother since her husband too was lost to her, hesitated. But the boy assured him that it was his mother herself who had sent him along and so was given leave to fight. He went along with the following poetry from his lips: “My chief is Husayn There is none better to gain Bringing gladness to the Prophet’s Heart’s domain, His parentage are Ali a chain, Do you know of any obtain?

His face effulgent like the sun, His forehead like moonlight shone.”

The boy went into the battle, killing the enemy until he was finally killed. His head was cut off and thrown across to the Imam’s camp. His mother took it in her hands, embraced it saying “God bless you my son” and then threw it back into the enemy camp saying: “What we give in the way of God, we and Fatimah in of his like to do not take back.”

One by one the companions of the Imam went forward and each in turn were martyred until none were left Now it came to the turn of the Bani Hashim, the Imam’s relatives - - the sons of Aqil Imam Hasan, his own son and the sons of Muslim and Abdullah bin Ja’far.

His brother who was popularly known as the moon of Bani Hashim, a handsome youth with a fine personality and wonderful features was yet another.

He was possessed of burning faith and love for his brother and what he stood for.

Dreaded by the enemy he stood out as a hope for the Imam and his children. But alas, he too went out and was martyred relieving the enemy of their anxiety but plunging the Imam’s came in despair. One by one they had all gone into battle and attained martyrdom.

First his companions, then his relatives, his brother and his own sons.

He stood alone with none to come to his aid.

It was now his turn to enter battle. He did shattering the enemy forces the blood running strong in his veins that was his mother Fatima’s, his father Ali’s, his brother Imam Hasan’s and that of redoubtable relatives Hamza and Ja’far. His blood, which was shed that they were the bloods of the Prophets and apostles Abraham Moses, Ismayl, Jesus and many others because they were from the divine and this cause was indeed divine.

As the day went by the sun began gradually to set, the desert of Karbala’ was suffuse with the blood of the martyrs and then the unthinkable happened - - Imam Husayn’s head was in the hands of the enemies.

God is great; The air became dark, the earth shook and the sun was eclipsed.

But it was the dawning of the son of truth.

The blood of Imam Husayn and that of his companions, relatives and of the loved of his family was shed to nourish the tree of human liberty and dignity. It was history’s greatest sacrifice and one that shaped its future course.

It was the uprising that nourished many other uprisings. It was the fount from which many other springs flowed.

It was the uprising from which the uprisings of Mukthar Thaqafi, that of Zayd and many others took their roots. Even unto this day Ashura’ of Husayn blazing forth as the paradigm supreme of the fight against tyranny and its eventual defeat and overthrow.


Ghadir khumm

In the last Year of his holiness the prophet's (A.S) life , after finishing the rituals of piligrammage and when returning in a place called the Khom pond close to Johfa , he Ordered to stop, because the revelation commanded the prophet (A.S) to complete his message.After the noon prayer the prophet went up the (minbar) pulpit of the camels' saddles and said: "O people, it is soon that I answer the call of God and go from among you. what do you think about me" .People said: "we witness that you have propagated the religion of God".Prophet (A.S) said:" Don't you witness that there is no God but the one God and Mohammad is his slave and messenger".People said:"Yes, we witness".Then the prophet (A.S) raised the hand of his holiness Ali (A.S) and said:"O People! among the believers who is more worthy than them selves.People said : "God and his prophet know better" .Then the prophet said:" O People who ever Iam his master and leader; Ali is his master and leader.And repeated this sentence three times.then the people congratulated this selection to his holiness Ali (A.S) and swore allegience to him.

His holiness ali (A.S) after the death of the honoured prophet (A.S) :

After the death of the honoured prophet (A.S) because of special conditions that arised, his holiness Ali (A.S) with draw from the scene of the society and choose silence; He neither participated in any struggle nor spoke officially in the society . He put the sword in the sheath and engaged with individual duties and educating the individuals.


Ghadir day

First Evidence

It is related to punishing whoever denying ‘Ali’s guardianship, after the prevalence of the news of Ghadir Khumm, and designation of al-’Imām ‘Ali as a caliph over the Muslims, with the Messenger’s telling the people: The attendant should inform the absent.

When this news reached al-Hārith ibn al-Nu‘mān al-Fahri, it displeased him. [1] So he rushed toward the Messenger of Allah, made his camel kneel down before the Mosque door, and entered upon the Prophet (S). After saluting him, he said: O Muهammad! You ordered us to witness that no god is there but Allah and you are the Messenger of Allah, and we accepted this from you. You also commanded us to perform five prayers day and night, fast the Month of Ramadān, perform pilgrimage to Allah’s House, and pay the alms-due out of our money and properties and so we did. But you were not satisfied with all this, till you one day surprised us with raising the hand of your cousin; preferring him over other people, and said: "Of whomever I am a master, ‘Ali also is his master." Is this from you or ordained by Allah?

The Messenger of Allah (S), whose eyes turned red, replied: By Allah, Who no god is there but He. It is ordained by Allah, and not from me (repeating it three times)

On standing up, al-Hārith said: "O Allah, if what is uttered by Muهammad being true, send against us stones from the sky or bring us a painful doom."

Then he (S) said: By Allah, before reaching his camel, Allah pelted him with a stone from the heaven, which fell upon the top of his head and went out from his posterior, causing his death. Thereat these verses were revealed by Allah the Almighty: "Demanded, a demander, the chastisement inevitable. For, the disbelievers against it, there is no repeller." (70:1-2)

This episode is reported by a large number of Ahl al-Sunnah ‘ulamā’, other than those we referred to. [2] Whoever desires to go through more references, can refer to the book al-Ghadir of al-‘Allāmah al-’Amini.

Stariji postovi

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And we wished to do a favor to those who were weak (and oppressed) in the land, and to make them rulers and to make them the inheritors.

Surat 28. Al-Qasas (History) - Ayeh 5

Verily your guardian is Alláh and His messenger (Muhammad)

And those who believe and establish the prayer,

And give charity (alms) while they are (in Ruku`) bowing down. (al Máidah, 5:55)

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) has said
There will remain no part of the Earth where the Islamic slogan will not be heard."

The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) has said
Ali is the master of all those of whom I am master. O Allah! Love him who loves him and hate him who hates him, help him who helps him, forsake him who forsakes him, and turn justice with him wherever he turns.


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